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Main Function of Human Brain


The human brain is the second among living species with the highest ratio of brain weight to total body weight. The highest rate belongs to whales. Then humans come.

The fact that the human brain is heavier than other living organisms means that its brain functions are more developed. That means more processing and more information storage.

According to scientists' research, the biggest function of the human brain is 'learning'. In other words, since the brain weight to body weight ratio is very high in human, the most important purpose and function of the human brain is to learn which distinguishes it from other animal brains. In fact, with what it has learned, human brain has the capacity to produce technology that can learn on its own.

In this respect, we can say that man is a conscious being. Consciousness, that is, a being that is aware of its existence.

We see that the most developed region of the human brain is the forebrain (frontal lob), while the limbic brain is the similar to one in animals. About 40%-50% of the human brain is located in the forebrain. The ratio of this region is around 20-25% in the monkey, which is the closest living creature to the human who can learn the best.

The left and right parts of the forebrain manage separate functions such as logical thinking and artistic thinking. In this respect, the part that makes a human, human is the front part of the brain. This means, activities such as learning, comprehending, processing information, creating artistic works, which are unique to humans, are done by using the front part of the brain.

What is the Limbic System?

The limbic brain and limbic system, which are also present in animals, manage the responses it gives to both the functional organs of the body and the emotional-behavioral ones as a result of stimuli from external factors.

The limbic system is also stimuli in the body in situations such as creating memories and associating these memories with events, learning new skills, keeping what has been learned in memory, sexual desire, fear, hunger, thirst, sleep pattern, stress, sense of place and direction, and protecting oneself and the environment against sudden events. In addition, olfaction and long- and short-term memory management take place in this area of the brain.

limbic system consists of four main regions: the hypothalamus, amygdala, thalamus, and hippocampus. As a result of the loss of function of the structures that make up the limbic system or damage due to a trauma, disorders that can seriously affect the life of the person may occur.


The hypothalamus establishes the connection between the nervous system and the endocrine system in the brain; It controls the functions transmitted by the nerves in the brain and processes information by combining it. It is responsible for behavioral movements such as heartbeat, maintaining body temperature, sleep patterns, sexual desire, reproduction, eating, drinking water that the body performs automatically. At the same time, the hypothalamus controls the body's response to stress. If the hypothalamus is damaged or not working properly, people may experience psychological disorders such as stress disorder, depression, or some physical ailments.


The hippocampus is known as the memory center of the brain. It takes part in transferring information from short-term memory to long-term memory. The hippocampus also plays an important role in associating memories with events and controlling one's sense of direction. Improper functioning of the hippocampus or exposure to traumas can cause short-term memory damage; this may lead to the fact that although old memories and long-learned things are retained in memory, recent events cannot be retained.


The thalamus governs the senses in both areas of the brain that provide vision, hearing, hearing, touch and taste. The thalamus, which plays an important role in the transmission of sensations through nerves, acts as a kind of terminal in the brain. In cases where the thalamus is damaged or cannot function properly, disorders such as attention deficit, impaired brain motor functions may occur.


The amygdala located on both sides of the brain; It manages a person's immediate sensory perceptions such as anger, violence, worry, anxiety or fear. The amygdala assesses potential situations that people may perceive as threats; it instinctively triggers reflexes that allow it to survive, such as fighting, defending itself, or fleeing. The amygdala is also responsible for associating memories with the emotions felt at the moment.

In summary, all emotions and functions governed by the limbic system are almost the same in humans and animals. The point is forebrain distinguishes humans from animals. It is larger in humans than in animals which also distinguishes human beings from animals is the ability of making smart precise decisions, using forebrain for reasoning, artistic thought, and creativity produced by the forebrain.

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